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Leukemia, cancer of the blood-framing tissues, is the most widely recognized type of childhood cancer. In any case, notwithstanding for a child with the most ideal prognosis, leukemia presents incalculable physical, center, physicians’ office, and group can do much to keep some problems and lessen others.
Leukemia is a wide term given to a gathering of malignant diseases of the bone marrow and lymphatic system. Momentum research has uncovered that it is a mind-boggling disease of differing heterogeneity. Consequently classification has turned out to be increasingly more sophisticated and essential, since recognizable proof of the subtype of leukemia has restorative and prognostic implications. The accompanying is an outline of the morphologic, cyto-synthetic and immunologic characteristics of the leukemia.
Morphology and cytochemical markers
Leukemia is classified by overwhelming cell sort and level of development. As described by the accompanying:
Lympho-for leukemia including the lymphoid or lymphatic system.
Myelo-for those of myeloid (bone marrow) starting point
Blastic and acute-for those including youthful cells
Cystic and perpetual for those including developed cells
Treatment and diagnosis
In children, two forms are for the most part perceived: acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphoid (myelogenous) leukemia (ANLL or AML). Synonyms for ALL incorporate lymphatic, lumphocytic, lymphoblastic, and lympho-blastoid leukemia. Usually the expression “stem cell” or “blast cell leukemia” also refers to the lymphoid kind of leukemia. Synonyms for the ANLL sort incorporate granulocytic, myelo-cytic, monocytic myelogenous, monoblastic, and mono-myeloblastic. There are also much rarer forms of leukemia that are named for the specific cell included, such as basophilic or eosinphilic leukemia.
Because of the confusion and inconsistency in classifying the leukemias, acute lymphoblastic and acute no lymphoblastic leukemias are further subdivided by system known as the French-American-British (FAB) system. In the FAB system, the subtypes are resolved after an exhaustive study of the morphology (structure) and cytochemical reactivity of the leukemic cells. In like manner, ALL is subdivided into 3 types, Li stands for Lymphoblastic leukemia, child sort, which accounts for 80% to 85% of all childhood leukemia and has the best prognosis, ANLL is classified into 7 types and comprises 10% to 20% of the leukemias in children. The types with the best prognosis are Mi, acute myelocytic leukemia without separation, and Mz, acute myelotic leukemia with separation.
The various cells also demonstrate diverse reactions when they are exposed to specific chemicals. For instance, lymphoblasts show no reactivity to Sudan dark stain and perioxidase, whereas myeloblasts demonstrate reactivity to both.
Another vital separation between the cell types is the absence or presence of Auer rods, granules containing RNA that show up in the cytoplasm of affected myeloblasts and promyelocytes. Their presence is a strong diagnostic pointer for specific types of ANLL and is associated with enhanced prognosis.
The principle clinical symptoms
- Fever, which the child shows amid long time and there is no obvious signs of contamination
- Torment in joints and bones (ossalgia)
- Pale shade of the skin
- Augmentation of fringe lymphatic nodes of distinctive groups which are usually not agonizing; amid palpation
- Augmentation of liver and spleen
- Discharge syndrome petechiae, bruises and dying)
Research facility diagnostic
Research facility diagnostic includes regular blood analysis. WBC differential tally and sternal cut. The fundamental dates are:
- Leukocytosis (with leucocytic levels up to 40-100x1o^6) or leucopenia
- Paleness of hypoplastic beginning
- WBC include (blasts can be seen fringe blood)