Pheochromocytoma is a vital cause of secondary Hypertension. We have adrenal organ situated at upper part of every kidney. It is isolated into adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of Adrenal Medulla. Ordinary capacity of adrenal medulla is to create epinephrine or adrenaline. Which is responsible for controlling blood pressure and to help adapt to stressful situations.
So larger part of symptoms of pheochromocytoma are because of excess secretion of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Most patients of pheochromocytoma have repetitive episodes of cerebral pain, sweating and a sentiment high uneasiness. The accompanying symptoms are listed from the most widely recognized to the least regular.
Cause of pheochromocytoma is obscure, however some forms of this tumor runs in families like,
a-Multiple endocrine neoplasia, sort II (MEN-II). Notwithstanding a pheochromocytoma, individuals with MEN-II also have thyroid cancer. Different forms of MEN-II incorporate pheochromocytoma with thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism (MEN-IIA), and pheochromocytoma with thyroid cancer and tumors of nerves in the eyes lips, mouth and digestive tract (MEN-IIB).
b-Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Pheochromocytomas can happen in a small rate of individuals with NF1, a syndrome that includes different tumors in the skin (neurofibromas), pigmented skin spots, tumors of the optic nerve of the eye, and bone diseases.
c-Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Individuals with this uncommon multisystem disorder are at high risk of pheochromocytoma brain eye and kidney tumors.
Most pheochromocytomas are amiable tumors and they dont spread to different parts of body however some forms show metastasis (spread) to different parts of body like lungs, bones and brains. Usually stand out organ is included however this tumor can be present in both adrenal glands.
Blood and Urine tests: We perform blood and pee tests to diagnose pheochromocytoma. 24 hr pee accumulation is tested for epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine. This test is called VMA. Thought is just to check level of epinephrine and its metabolites in pee. In the event that these are distinguished in pee in excess amount, then tumor is diagnosed.
Presently you have diagnosed tumor by blood and pee tests, after that to discover area of tumor, Ultrasound, CT scan of mid-region.
On the off chance that hypertension stayed uncontrolled it may prompt complications of heart disappointment, localized necrosis, cerebrovascular mischance, vision harm and kidney disappointment.
First treatment is to control hypertension with pharmaceutical like Alpha Blockers and Beta Blockers. At the point when epinephrine is secreated by this tumor it acts on alpha and beta receptors present on heart and blood vessels, result is vasoconstriction and increase heart rate. Presently if on the off chance that we take drugs like alpha blocker and beta blocker, epinephrine will be hindered by these drugs to follow up on these receptors so result is vasodilation and slow heart rate. Normal Alpha blockers are Prazosin (Minipress), Terazosin (Hytrin) Phenoxybenzamine( Dibenzaline). Basic Beta Blockers are Atenolol(Tenormin), Carvedilol(Carveda), Metoprolol(Mepressor), Inderal.
Treatment of decision for this tumor is Surgery. After evacuation of this organ by surgery, blood pressure becomes typical with a day. There are two types of surgeries. General and Laproscopic surgery. However Surgery is impossible for those tumors which show metastasis to different parts of body. For that we use chemotherapy and radiations.